Electrophoresis is generally considered the best method for separating and identifying abnormal hemoglobins. Via a two-step process, blood samples are initially screened using alkaline hemoglobin electrophoresis, followed by confirmation of abnormals by electrophoresis at an acid pH.
Helena hemoglobin procedures are widely used for hemoglobin screening programs. Many samples can be handled quickly, easily and cost-effectively. Interpretation is made by comparing the patient's hemoglobin pattern to a control sample.
Citrate Agar Assay Time: approximately 55 minutes.
Titan III Alkaline Hemoglobins
SPIFE Alkaline and Acid Hemoglobin Electrophoresis methods
QuickGel Alkaline and Acid Hemoglobin Electrophoresis
2400 – Titan IV Citrate Agar – 5/pkg
5121 – Citrate Buffer – 10 x 15.5 g
The lower pH of the Titan IV Citrate Agar allows it to be used as a primary screening procedure for detection of HbS in newborns and as a confirmation of abnormal hemoglobins detected by alkaline electrophoresis. Up to 14 samples plus two controls can be run on each plate. Samples are easily applied with Zip Zone Applicator (Cat. No. 4080). Citrate Buffer is used as the chamber buffer for the citrate agar procedure.
5125 – Hemolysate Reagent – 1 x 250 mL
5127 – Hemolysate Reagent w/o KCN – 1 x 250 mL
5128 – Hemolysate Reagent (Powder) – 1 x 1.8 g
This reagent hemolyzes red blood cells and stabilizes hemoglobin in one easy step. It eliminates many tedious, time-consuming steps in preparing hemolysates. The reagent contains 0.005 M EDTA with 0.07% potassium cyanide to assist in stabilizing the hemoglobin. The powdered reagent is dissolved in 1.0 liter deionized water.
5036 – o-Dianisidine – 1 x 2 g
5041 – o-Tolidine – 1 x 2 g
o-Dianisidine is a sensitive, hemoglobin-specific stain used for staining hemoglobins separated on Titan IV Citrate Agar. An alternate stain for use with Titan IV Citrate Agar, o-Tolidine yields blue-colored hemoglobin bands. Both stains are powders that are dissolved in 1.0 liter methanol for use.
5331 – AFSC Hemo Control – 1 x 1 mL
AFSC Hemo Control is stabilized liquid prepared from fresh-packed human red blood cells hemolyzed with Hemolysate Reagent. It is for qualitative and quantitative use in identification and quantitation of hemoglobins.
IEP is a reliable and accurate method for routine serum and urine protein evaluations, detecting both structural abnormalities and concentration changes. It has been widely used in identification of monoclonal gammopathies.
Helena offers both thick Titan IV agar and thin TITAN GEL IEP agarose for performing immunoelectrophoresis. The thick agarose, on a rigid plastic backing for ease of handling, requires a larger volume of antisera and patient samples, and forms a dense precipitin arc easily interpreted and photographed without staining the gel. Double Diffusion agar gels for determining antisera titer and purity and gel trays are also available.
TITAL GEL Immunoelectrophoresis
9050 – Titan IV IEPlates – 8 wells, 7 troughs, 5 gels/pkg
9061 – Titan IV IEPlates – 7 wells, 6 troughs, 5 gels/pkg
5016 – Electra B1 Buffer – 10 x 13.1g
Titan IV IEPlates are a thick agarose gel on a rigid plastic support. Each gel has a plastic lid and a reusable plastic pouch. Results may be interpreted without staining.
Cat. No. 9050 (see picture) has 8 wells and 7 troughs. Gels require 4 mL of sample and 75 mL of antisera. The well position is 17 mm from the cathode end of the trough. The recommended migration distance is 40 mm.
Cat. No. 9061 has 7 wells and 6 troughs. Gels require 4 mL of sample and 150 mL of antisera. The well position is 23 mm from the cathode end of the trough. The recommended migration distance is 20 mm. Precipitin arcs on this gel are slightly shorter and broader than those obtained with Cat. No. 9050.
9231 – Antisera to Human IgA, Heavy Chain Specific – 1 x 2 mL
9232 – Antisera to Human IgG, Heavy Chain Specific – 1 x 2 mL
9233 – Antisera to Human Whole Serum – 1 x 2 mL
9234 – Antisera to Human IgM, Heavy Chain Specific – 1 x 2 mL
9236 – Antisera to Human (IgG, A, M) Trivalent, Heavy Chain Specific – 1 x 2 mL
9249 – Antisera to Human IgD, Heavy Chain Specific – 1 x 2 mL
9250 – Antisera to Human IgE, Heavy Chain Specific – 1 x 2 mL
9251 – Antisera to Human (IgG, A, M, D, E) Pentavalent, Heavy Chain Specific – 1 x 2 mL
9257 – Antisera to Human Lambda, LIght Chain Specific – 1 x 2 mL
9262 – Antisera to Human Kappa, Light Chain Specific – 1 x 2 mL
Helena's antisera are produced in goats or sheep.
9010 – Normal Human Serum Control – 1 x 2 mL
9011 – Albumin Marker – 1 x 2 mL
The control is a stabilized liquid prepared from pooled normal human serum for use as a normal control serum for immunoelectrophoresis procedures. Albumin Marker is bromphenol blue which binds to albumin. The marker is added to the Normal Human Serum Control so the control can be used as a migration marker in immunoelectrophoresis procedures.
9009 – Double Diffusion Plates – 10 gels/pkg
Gels contain 15 wells in three, 5-well configurations. Useful in determining antisera titer, antigen/antibody ratio, checking purity of antigen preparations, etc.
5009 – Gel Trays, 76 x 102 mm – 20/pkg
5010 – Gel Trays, 25 x 76 mm – 20/pkg
The 76 x 102 mm (3" x 4") gel tray is designed to be filled with 12.5 mL of liquid agarose.
The 25 x 76 mm (1" x 3") trays require a 2.9 mL volume.